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Back-enders are developers who convert business logic into functional systems capable of automating processes. Compared to front-enders their main focus is on making things work, in the broadest sense of the word.
A backend software developer makes desktop apps (Mac, Windows, Linux) work. They take interfaces created by a frontend software developer (depending on the size of the organisation, these roles can be shared by one developer) and link them up with the app functionality. Think of opening up a popup window when a user clicks a button.
With the expansion of the web, a lot less new desktop software is being developed. New software that runs in the form of an app might need a specific integration with a piece of hardware (e.g. eID card reader, barcode reader) and this is still a lot easier to do through a desktop app.
Other examples of common software developed natively on desktop could be high-performance applications involving calculations or video games. Backend software developers also do maintenance work on existing but business-critical software - a lot of it is still around but will eventually be phased out.