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Back-enders are developers who convert business logic into functional systems capable of automating processes. Compared to front-enders their main focus is on making things work, in the broadest sense of the word.
A backend web developer makes web interfaces functional. That means they will take the HTML designs created by a frontend web developer (in some jobs both roles are taken on by the same developer, but this is not common) and create/link the required functionality within the interface to make the page work. Clicking a button on a web page that triggers an event is an example of something commonly implemented by a back-end web developer.
They often also expose specific functionalities through web-based APIs. These are abstractions other systems can connect to and build upon. Mobile apps often combine functionality run locally on the device with data that is stored or processed in the cloud. Cloud based systems are commonly created and maintained by backend web developers.